The Clash of Cultures and the Search for Security: between global power and violent extremes

Prof.Dr.Geoffrey P. Nash

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 18-56

The pursuit for international security has occupied statesmen ever
since the First World War ended almost a hundred years ago, but
even with the best intentions, efforts to bring about order and stability
in the world have still not achieved a decisive breakthrough.
Peace and security – in spite of the international organizations built
up after the twentieth century’s two world wars – continue to elude
us. Previously, in the nineteenth century, world affairs were governed
by the Powers (i.e. the major European States), who notionally
depended on a ‘concert’ or balance of power to maintain international
order within Europe, but who spread their imperial power
through the rest of the world according to their own devices. In the
twentieth century, the two Superpowers prevailed allowing their
proxies to engage in wars and disturbances beyond their agreed
spheres of influence. Today we live in a multi-polar world, which is
no longer held in check by the receding hegemony of the remaining
Superpower, and where the resultant vacuum has resulted in
the break up of nations and the ascendancy of insurrectionary and
state terror.
How should we view future prospects, and what hope is there that
the present world powers will reach an agreement that might yield
the peace and security that we all desire? Realistically, as long as
present circumstances prevail, we cannot expect that what in 1991
President George H. W. Bush called ‘the new world order’ will be
imminently established. So, according to the terminology of international
relations theory, we might attempt to understand international
affairs according to the ‘pragmatic’, ‘realist’, ‘idealist’, etc.
labels used to categorize the foreign policies of states; however, the
assumptions on which these terms are based rely on past experience
and we cannot assume that leaders will continue to behave as
they did over the last one hundred and fifty years, as exemplified by
the the present incumbent of the oval office.

Cyber Security, Cultural Security and the Cyber Gap: Lessons from Middle Eastern Policy Makers Cultural Security: Concepts and Applications

Prof. Dr. Brian Brivat

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 58-81

States face ever increasing ethical, legal and rights challenges
thrown up by cyber security issues both in terms of national security,
the protection of cultural norms and in terms of privacy and
commercial activity. These challenges interface with greater demands
for online human rights across a broad spectrum from the
defence of IP to the protection of identity and the limits of surveillance.
There are significant variations in the level and quality of
policy frameworks that respond to increasing economic reliance on
internet based activity. The link between the effective operation of
a national cyber security plan and the promotion and defence of
online human rights in terms of national, regional or global human
rights norms in what will be an ever more complex and disputed
area, requires a platform for training and sharing of best practice.
There have been a range of initiatives from the international donor
community to engage with individual countries and to set global
standards. There has been little specific and sustained focus on the
interface between security and rights because different departments
tend to focus on these issues. In turn, different states have
widely differing conceptions of freedom of expression and cultural
norms that should be allowed.
This paper builds on a three year multi-country project that has
established a network of cyber policy experts across the Middle
East. It explores the need to manage the trade-off between public
expectations of privacy, cultural difference and the need for state
surveillance in cyber space. It presents the preliminary conclusions
of a group of policy makers who took part in a multi-stage Fellowship
programme. This group pulled back from considering some
key issues, accepted profound differences of approach on other issues
and devised an agenda of collaboration in spaces that they felt
progress could be made on. The paper concludes on the needs to
more Fellowship style network policy making and presents a broader
theory of change model for developing policy responses to the
challenges of cyber-crime.

Multiple Versions of Islamic Source Texts: A Suggestion for Achieving Cultural Security

Asst.Prof.Muhammad-Reza FakhrRohani

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 84-94

Security, and particularly cultural security, are of utmost significance
for sustaining the cultural capital of any nation. Although
various nations may take pride in their dissimilar cultural capitals,
all depending on their cultural values and heritage, the same principle
of safeguarding our cultural capitals proves of conspicuous
significance for our posterity and the future any nation may desire
to construct. The present paper pays attention to ways of achieving
cultural security vis-a-vis multiple versions of Husayni texts for
our posterity and the threats and opportunities that may appear.
Here Husayni literature, in its various manifestations, is regarded as
a precious capital worthy of careful safeguarding for our future generations.
It is here that various types of translation and annotation,
when applied to Husayni literature, prove of utmost significance.

Charity, Tenderness-Based Moral Education and Cultural Security

Asst.Prof.Dr.Ahmad Deylami

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 96-107

Explosion-like access of information, communications, and social
media have brought about instant cultural exchanges. In itself of
a tool-like nature, it can potentially be in the service of the good or
evil. Availability of harmful data, represented by tempting appearance
that instigate people to follow carnal desires, and sharpen and
kindle more sagacious people’s desires, it urges people, and especially
the religious people, to find cures for this unfavorable mass
Hence, the question: What is the easiest and most accessible
way for prevention, cure, and providing cultural security for the human
and spiritual resources and capitals? The present paper focuses
on the notion of moral education based on tenderness and charity
as the fastest and firmest ways for achieving cultural security, particularly
based on the Quranic and Ahl al-Bayt legacies. This method
never contradicts the minimal legal and state-based requirements;
however, these requirements should be designed and practiced according
to charity/ tenderness-based moral education strategies.

Moral Language Endangerment

Lec.Dr. Ramia Fu; Ph.D; ad Abdulazeez

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 109-124

This paper is concerned with the concept of moral language
endangerment by which is meant the unnoticed danger that a language
is exposed to in what makes its identity at stake. It comes as
an offspring of certain mechanisms the unfolding of which is the
main concern of this work. Thus, the paper starts with defining the
concept of physical language endangerment and showing its strategies,
then defining its counterpart, i.e. moral language endangerment
by comparing it to the former spotting Arabic as a case under
scrutiny. Finally, a number of conclusions and recommendations are

Culture and Critical Thinking Skills for Language Learners

Lec.Dr. Muna Mohammed Abbas Alkhateeb

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 126-140

Language Learning is a an indispensable part of human culture. A
major purpose of language is to express thoughts, knowledge, and
beliefs through the processes of teaching and learning. As a result of
learning and functioning in a language, culture is sustained through
generations (Salili & Hossain,2007). At the same time, culture also
influences how knowledge, teaching and learning are construed as
well as how teaching and learning are practiced. The knowledge is
acquired in a particular cultural context transforms into schemata
(mental representation of knowledge based on personal experience)
that may not be universally acceptable. A better understanding
of the interdependency of language and culture is paramount
to the development of appropriate learning strategies to meet the
needs of an increasingly changing world. This paper examines the
influence of culture on language learning in relation to the teaching
and learning of critical thinking in the context of professional education.
The increasing emphasis on critical thinking in education at
all levels is applicable to any culture that is currently influenced by
changes in the global environment, but how culture influences the
increasing emphasis on critical thinking is not certain. Just as culture
affects how people construe and practice teaching and learning
(Merriam, 2007), culture can also have an important influence
on how critical thinking is perceived and exercised. The ability to
think well does not guarantee one’s ability to communicate effectively.
Students are trained with critical thinking skills in order to
solve problems or make decisions; if they do not know how to present
their ideas appropriately, the efforts spent in critical thinking
would be futile. While it is important to consider the language ability
of students, the manners and methods involved in the expression
of their critical thoughts should also be made explicit to others,
regardless of their cultural backgrounds.

Cultural Security: Stagnation or Safety?

Asst. Lectu. Sophia Butt

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 142-160

When reflecting on the concept of cultural security, it is important to
be mindful of its multi-faceted existenceand its far-reaching impact
on individuals across the world,and,ifpondered from a theological
perspective, in thehereafter, too. Definitions of the term ‘culture’
are largely demographic in nature,premised on the idiosyncrasies
of a nation. They commonly focus on heritage and both the conservation
and celebration of diversity in architecture, art, clothes, cuisine,
language, literature, music, religion, tradition, and much more.
Culture is, therefore,the manifestation of a multi-layered reality, a
tool through which individuals craft their identity and their paths
through life. Thus, it is no surprise that the preservation of cultures
is of paramount importance to anthropologists, sociologists and
some theologians, and naturally, individuals whopossessan innate
desire to seek comfort in the familiar. However, in recent years, the
term cultural security has also taken on meanings other than those
associated exclusively with nations and individuals.

Cultural Insecurity: Where Lies the Threat?

Asst.Lec.Hasan Shikoh

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 162-170

In Cultural Security conferences and tea party drawing room discussions,
there seems to be much concern about two particular issues
on the subject: the articulation of an accurate definition of ‘culture’,
and identifying the external threats to the same.Extremely complicated
definitions are obsessed over, and thus, much time and effort
is expended on what seems to be an endless pursuit.
The United Nations may defineculture in a particular way, dictionaries
in anotherand learned professors in their way, but in the wake
of this intellectual wrestling, the bottom line isthat whatever it may
entail, culture is, simply put, a way of life.
Then, in the twists and turns of the intellectual jousting regarding
what aspects of the human existence may be includedin or excluded
from it, the issue of security is considered, and the default
stress seems toprimarily be placed on the ‘external’ forces as being
the greatest threat.It is rare for one to hear participants and others
who are concerned about their cultural security, to lay equal,
let alonegreater, stress on the factors of theinternal threat to their

Cultural Security of Indian Muslims: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and His Legacy

Asst.Lecu.Sujan Mondal

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 172-186

In the middle of Nineteenth century, the Indian Muslims confronted
with the crucial problems of the devastation of the long 800 years
of Mughal Dynasty/ Muslim’s rule and concomitant colonial expansion
of the British in India. The failure of the Revolt of 1857/ Mutiny/
First War of Independence exacerbated plight of the Indian
Muslims. In post-1857 India, several forces- both external as well
as internal - were working against the Muslims in India. The Britishers’
retaliatory havoc in post-1857, colonial domination in the transformed
historical situation and the darkness of ignorance engulfed
the Indian Muslims. The condition of Muslims was deplorable as
they were most backward in education and economically shattered
and politically defeated by the East India Company. The entire community
was distressed and helpless, and their culture, identity and
existence were at stake in Hindustan. At that critical juncture, Sir
Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898), confronting the situation and negotiating
with colonial modernity, came forward with western
modern science and English education in one hand and the light
of the Quran on the other hand to offer a solution to the Muslim
community from this decadence. Syed Ahmed was a distinguished
scholar, philosopher, historian, Islamic reformer, educationist, political
ideologue, archaeologist, lawyer and a humanist who transformed
socio-political, cultural situation of Muslims in post- 1857
India. He was primarily concerned about the socio-cultural issues
and modern education of the Indian Muslims. With a view to modernizing
and uplifting the socio-cultural and economic status of the
Muslims, he laid the foundation of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental
College (1975), which was later transformed into Aligarh Muslim
University (1920). Aligarh Muslim University has been serving as a
socio-cultural Movement for protecting and preserving the cultural
heritage and religious identity of the Indian Muslims.

The Importance of Cyber Security as a Part of The National Security System


AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 188-208

The research examines the importance of cyber security at the present
time after the Intrusion of cyber technology to all life sectors. The unrestricted,
un organized and open usage of technology had significantly
reflected on people’s life, their security, and their privacy breaking all
barriers and trammels shedding effect on the social cultural identity and
changing of life manners. Cyber security is an important part of country’s
national security systems, It is considered an intellectual demolition tool
used widely by enemies to reach the minds of people exporting ideas and
information to people's brains.
Cyber technology had become a crucial part of people’s life and went
even further to be non- relinquished. This research will look over the conception
of cyber and cultural security, its formation, and connections to
other concepts of soft power. It also studies the reality of cyber security
in Iraq and the world, the usage of electronic means in cyber-attacks and
smart wars targeting Iraq open space. The Paper will present Examples,
and solutions. Suggested solutions will go into two directions: short term
tactical and long term strategic solutions aiming to strengthening national
defensive cyber systems and achieve high levels of control on the national
cyber space.
Technology has become an active mean of intellectual terrorism and
change of human’s life trends. It reduces time, efforts, and resources and
turned the world to be a small ring with easy reach to all its far ends and
points. Cyber wars has relied mainly on psycho means with direct and indirect
influence or control the public psychology by using soft power tools
partially or totally benefiting of ignorance and negligence among some
societal groups, those who do not realize the risk of the usage of electronic
devices, communications and internet. Iraq is suffering of control
loss due to lack of policies and absence of restrictions lead to easy access
of intruders to the minds of people building mental images and causing
intellectual confusion deforming the human cultural identity. From another
side cyber technologies can have a lot of merits and positive impact
if used correctly, and efficiently in a way that serves the national goals
supporting the defensive, precautionary cyber security systems. This in
which creates an awareness of electronic threats and risks and set up
an intellectual boundaries to protect the institutional, human, national
identity, cultural values and cultural security through solid intellectual and
cultural immunity knowledge. The research will end concluding couple of
suggestions, recommendations and solutions forming a future work plan
to control, manage cyber risks and protect the national cultural identity.