Linguistic Methodology of Sheikh. Al-Karbasi in Light of the Scientific Hawza Curricula in the Holy Al-Najaf
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 23-63
For the university and Hawza culture the sheikh. Al-Karbasi maintains is the essence of a prominent methodology in studying linguistic issues; the paper is ramified into: the first section tackles the semantic achievements in the linguistic research of Al-Kharj research rank through the prism of the linguistic explication of the Glorious Quran and induction of intents ; the paper exposes many a gambit of paramountcy on the scale of meaning induction. Yet the second section gives importance to the methodology of sheikh. Al-Karbasi in studying the parsing and its application in parsing the Glorious Quran, its explication to the linguistic references, then it is manifested that his locus is to buttress the researchers in perceiving the Quranic text through exposing the parsing elements. Yet the third section delves into certain syntactic issues revealing his intellectuality; he was an interpreter, verifier, critic and perceives the texts through the steps he takes in refuting the opinions of Ibn Hasham. Ultimately, the study terminates at the Quranic use of the utterance, sentences and his methodology in categorizing his semantic and linguistic issues. The study reaches to a fact that sheikh Al-Karbasi yoked the methodologies, Hawza and university, altogether and was one of the theorists who endeavours to extirpate the tongue from the tune and its semantic and spiritual trajectory in the syntactic research.
Metamorphoses of the Semantic Existence in the Circumstance Theory of the Al-Najaf School Traditionists
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 67-96
In the current study do I broach the second section of Existence
Rudiments in the Circumstance Theory of the Traditonists tackling such a
locus; it gives focus upon the metamorphoses of the semantic existence
in the circumstance theory of the Al-Najaf school traditionists, the acts of
development from the “Iraqi theory” and its nexus with the contemporary
In the second it exposes the nexus between The Presupposition
Theory of Al-Asfahani, semantics and foundation system of the linguistic
meaning. Yet the last section studies the theory of communication of
Seid. Al-Sistani and its nexus with Habarmass theory on the one hand
and Cress theory on the other hand. Ultimately the study concludes that
these metamorphoses are four terminating at the theory of the martyr
Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadre as it is called the “the Certain Century” the
meant paper never digs deeper in for reasons mentioned in the conclusion,
no success but from Him.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 99-126
Thanks be upon the Creator of the universe, and peace be upon the
most honest one who ploughs his path under the heaven; the master of
prophets Mohammed and his immaculate progeny.
Al-Sheikh Al-Mudhafir starts his study life in 1335Hijra, 1916, takes
knowledge from his brothers and gains the junior years of Hawza sciences,
Al-Satuh, at the hand of Seid. Muhssin Al-Hakeem, then he edits a book
about rhythm in 1343 Hijra,1924.
However he erects a rapport in the cultural heritage in concordance
with his methodology; to delve into such a locus is to create a scientific
concatenation to revive the civilization and cuddle the creativity of the
nation; its arts and products; such paves the way to the coming generations
in the orbit of letter, word and deed, it is of gratitude to tackle such a
scientific personality: I was one of the student for his cultural project,
that is why I do emulate his path as he is the fount of the cultural reform
running the bloodstreams of a student.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 129-175
In the modern era, new studies that pursed to correct the track of
Arabic lexicon were conducted. Some of which were general, as it included
the whole dictionary, while others dealt with parts of it, such as: correction,
criticism, complementation, etc. This wave of studies continued to grow
little by little according to the society’s need of covering the shortage it
suffered from, especially that it was experiencing the scientific revolution
in all its varieties. Shortly this wave became eye-catching.
Therefore, I made my efforts to reveal a part of these aspects, and I
entitled my research as: Aspects of Relexification in the Arabic Lexicon in
the Modern Time, the study includes criticism and retractation in Arabic
lexicon only, for a few reasons:
1. There are in Profusion modern studies in this field, enriching such
2. Criticism and retractation are considered as forms of correction, that
is far from disproving what the old linguists have done.
3. Criticism and retractation include the whole dictionary, that gives a
chance to search and dig.
I devoted the study to (NashaatAldirasat Al logawia), and I provided
a preface about the tributaries and fields of linguistic studies and to
(Madaher Al Tajdeed), and I had chosen a number of dictionaries to be
the field of my research: (Muheet Al Muheet, Quter Al Muheet, Aqrab
Al Maward Fi FusahAlArabiawa Al Shawared, Al Mujam Al Tareekhi, Al
Mujam Al Kabeer, and Al Mujam Al Waseet). Ultimately , it concludes with
the most important results.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 179-222
Sahifa Al-Sajjadia consists of the prayers of Imam Zeinol Abedin
including fifty four prayers which have great importance in the religious
doctrines. Every one, who studies these prayers and contemplates their
meanings, can figure out the high spiritual rank of Imam Sajjad (peace be
Taking Imam Sajjad’s grandeur as well as the importance of this
book into consideration, various explanations have been written about
it but none of them have separately defined the rhetoric of these prayers
including meaning, statement, and speech figures. It is necessary for us
to pay more attention to this worthwhile book, and the scholars and
academcs should devote more time to studying and doing research on
such a fount as they have made an effort to succeed in the explanation of
Quran and Nahjol-Balagheh.
In this paper, the figures of speech including verbal and semantic in
the Sahifa Sajjadia have been specified based on a field research.
We have shown that there are many examples of the verbal and
semantic figures of speech in Sahifa. There are a lot of examples of the
verbal figures of speech especially including pun and riming-prose in the
Sahifa, and actually there is no prayer without these features. Moreover,
a lot of examples of the semantic figures of speech especially including
parallelism, oxymoron, congeries, and antimetabole in the Sahifa.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 225-280
The perception, emanating from the crestive nexus between the
Quranic utterances and structures and the organic bonds in them, surges
into existence the semantic allusions never derail from the heart of the
utterance and structure; it is celebrated with the ability to expand and
dominate as the dictionary meaning ramifies into shades of connotation,
it is necessary to yoke the structure with meaning and the context to
fathom the semantic allusions. As such the current study heaves into
reality to have the targets of the Quranic texts and manifests the system
that combines both the syntax and linguistics in a way to cull the meaning
and in light of the relations between parsing, utterances, content and
structures: Ha, Jeem and Ra in the Quranic Use, a study on context and
structure to achieve what it is tackled above.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 283-308
In the Road of Eloquence, are there many loci one gravitates to as it
is the real fount of the universe, arts and all the fields of knowledge, such
calls the heed of the researcher to glean all these loci in "Social Discourse".
The discourem as a mater of fact, ramifies into varios shades of
content; tackling the society in light od Islam to teach peoplew, improve
the community and observe the plights to be rectified; it is the social
discourse the Imam seals in the Road of Eloquence, which is the foucus
of the current study. To recommence the targets, the study tends to be
bifuricated into four scections, the first mnoipuklates the definition and
literature review of the social discourse; neighbourhood, the poor and
the rich, orphans, social reciprocal responsaibility, condiscence, kith
and kin visitibg. The second does the way the messages takes into the
interlocutors; warning, advice, complaint about the eople of his time,
order, probibition and description. Then the third does tge fact that the
discourse, as usual, tarfgets different prow of the society, so it is necessary
to whinnow the type of the community itself; the large commuity and the
small community, that is to say, the public interlocutor and the specific
interlocutor. Ultimately the fourth does the traits the discourse has, as it is
a compltmentay discourse: each completes the other, a text cuddles many
a social tipopic and a semantic trait.
Capacity Acquisition: Strategy of Innovation and Administering the Development in the University Institutions
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 311-350
Universities as educational institutions endeavour to adopt
administrative access sufficient to have a distinguished performance
in both quality and capacity. As a matter of fact, such institutions take
so prominent a role in the process of development, reformation and
modernity in all economic ,educational, intellectual and scientific aspects
of the society. One of the modern administrative access is capability
that provides the educational institutions with a high degree of speed
and flexibility towards markets requirement and its fluctuated demands
.However the main objective of this strategy is to achieve an utmost
investment of the essential abilities of both individuals and groups ;
a number of results and recommendations most importantly comes as
1. The success of adopting the strategy of capability depends on the
first line of the universities and also on the level of their faith in the
advantages of such administrative doctrine.
2. The doctrine of capability requires the redesigning of the organizational
structure in a way that makes the employees capable of taking
decisions based on the same missions of the leadership. it is difficult
to adopt the doctrine of capability in bureaucratic universities.
3. The universities adopt the doctrine of capability are characterized
by precise comprehension and education, they also work in an
atmosphere of enthusiasm and team spirit.
4. redesigning organizational structures of the universities in a way
that guarantees the participation of all available human resources in
decision –making and solving problems.
5. 2-The employees should share the vision and message of the university
,in its present and future plans, with the leading staff, in addition . the
university should be obvious in assigning roles to its employees and in
the regulations that govern the organizational structure.
6. 3- Adopting educational technology and electronic administration in
fulfilling all the administrative tasks of the university.
Al-khawaja Nasir Al-din Al-tusi (1201 - 1274 ad . 597 - 672 h) And His Stance on Publicizing the Mongol Invasion of Baghdad
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 353-400
The current study rounds one of the most distinguished and mysterious
characters in the history of Islamic thought، for so eminent a role he
played in restoring the glamour and vitality to the Islamic civilization that
suffered retraction and lethargy throughout the seventh A.H century – the
thirteen A.D century. Such a figure، during the phases of its life، swayed
between dedicating his efforts once to scientific affairs، and the other to
the political work. Therefore، AlkhawajaNasir Aldin Altusi became one of
the most controversial promoinent personality in the Islamic history.
In the study do we try to deal with Attusi social life، early life، gradual
advancement in disciplining ; showing most salient trips that he made in
acquiring science; exposing his most important writings in different fields.
We may also say that his contemplations in prophesy and imamate were
under lens of him as a theorist، a philosopher and an intellectual scholar in
his aim and his abstraction and intellectual tools. All that was for the sake
of putting forth the principles of humanity salvation.
While in ideologicalpolitical side of his life، we made a tour in studying
the influence of the Ismā’ilism thought upon Attusi: the thought concerns
the thinkers at his age. As it is known that the Mongolian invaders
dominated this epoch of time martially.
All these factors accompanied to influence the thought of the studied
character، especially in the field of prophecy and Imamate. Surely we
would pay attention to the falling of Baghdad by the Mongolians،and
the task Attusi performed in that important event and its concomitant
circumstances. Hoping that Allah be with us in this righteous endeavour.
Evaluating the Performance of Arabic Language Teachers in Junior High School and High School in the Light of the Teaching Skills
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 403-434
The current research aims to evaluate Arabic language teachers in
junior high school and high school performance in light of the teaching
skills by answering the following two questions:
1. What are the skills necessary to teach the Arabic language in junior
high and high school?
2. What is the level of achievement of these skills in the teaching of
rules in the preparatory and secondary schools?
And current research is determined by:
1. Junior high and high schools in the province of Babylon center.
2. Arabic language teachers who are studying Arabic in junior high and
high schools for the academic year 20152016-.
To achieve the goal the researcher chose a sample of teachers
amounted to (26) as a teacher, adopted a tool consisting of note form
having (65) the adequacy of the Arabic grammar
The researcher uses statistical methods (center-weighted, and weight
percentile, and Pearson coefficient) , there are some results:
1. The performance of teachers in the teaching of the rules in general
comes below the required level.
2. The essential weakness lies in the performance of teachers in general
in the field of planning and preparation for the lesson, and the use of
teaching aids, and the area of the calendar.
3. The performance of teachers is quite siffivcient in the areas of
(boosting and stimulating the motivation and the implementation of
the lesson, and human relations and management grade).
finally the treasrch concludes a number of recommendations
1. Relying on teaching skills that have been identified in current
research, the supervisors and specialists use them in evaluating the
performance of teachers in the teaching of the rules.
2. Provciding the Arabic language teachers with a list of the skills that
have been identified in this study.
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 19-44
This paper sheds light on no less important linguistic phenomenon:
slang. It is a universal phenomenon. No language in the world
lacks it yet it has received little attention. Any attempt to approach
the slang aspect of any language, whether one's native language or
a foreign language will be surprised at the level of complexity at all
the linguistic levels recognized by linguists. Slang is a multi-featured
aspect. It is generally characterized by instability, novelty, creativity,
informality and even vulgarity. Despite all these, slang is fun to
learn and use (let alone study) simply for the reason that it allows
the user to express the same thoughts, feelings, emotions and attitudes
towards a certain issue, situation or person with enormously
various ways that suit his needs and goals. The sources of slang are
too many. There are as many slang expressions as there are aspects
of life. War is one of these many human endeavors. The contact between
different people triggers a process of borrowing between the
languages in contact. The ordinary people or the lay men are the
quickest to respond to this kind of mutual influence. Teaching and
learning languages should give some attention to slang especially
with its widespread use in the social media, movies, streets and in
places and establishments where the formal language is expected
to be dominant. The paper presents a theoretical background of
slang in terms of the linguistic levels. It includes definitions, sources,
classification of slang. This background is used in analyzing a selection
of slang expressions related to the USA war on Iraq in 2003.
These expressions are collected from four sources. little or no attention
has been given to the study of slang let alone as far as a very recent
event such as the 2003 invasion is concerned. This paper is an
attempt to bridge one gap in slang research. The analysis shows that
formation of the slang expressions chosen for the study follow the
same recognized word formation processes in English. Expressions
borrowed from Iraqi Arabic have been slightly altered in terms of
their pronunciation, morphology and grammar. These expressions
are mainly used to maintain social channels of communication with
the Iraqi people. The expressions have served also as verbal shortcuts
especially those abbreviated.