Principles of Social Education in the Ideology of Imam Al-Sadiq Peace be upon him

Asst. Pof. Dr. Muhammad D. Ebraheem

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 21-50

He was the imam of so prominent a niche in the Islamic educational system, as sharing an active contribution to advancing education further. He is a meritorious teacher from his hands a number of leading scientists come into light and leaves after him guidance ,teachings and encyclopedic heritage open to all human issues .So the current research paper focuses on the social educational principles of the imam of the community, security, safety in the land ,love ,peace and intimacy.The paper takes four sections: The first, principle of fraternity and introduction is to ensure the most important foundations called for by the Imam : visiting ,equality, pacifism, declaring love and intimacy and eschewing whatsoever defaces sociality. The second, the principle of cooperation and solidarity, is to ensure the most important rules called for by the Imam of people: planting the seeds of people, serving and achieving their needs ,encouraging people to lend, give time to repay and to console .The third, the principle of honesty and integrity, is to keep the principle of integrity intact ,to stimulate people into its acts and to warn the acts of creditation without good intention. The fourth, the principle of social reform, is to deal with the most important principles drawn by the Imam in addressing social differences and discounts and mending the schisms ,amnesty and doing good to bad.

Imam Al-Sadiq School as a Sublime Nonpareil for Perfect Islamic University

Asst. Pof. Sumaiya Hasanulaiyan

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 53-78

In his time Imam Al Sadiq was the cynosure thousands of disciples and scientists gravitate around regardless of their religion, languages and propensities. Whose school surged as the most elegant in the orbit of sciences and thought as it has distinguished features giving it prominence over the other throughout ages. It could be a nonpareil for the perfect Islamic university attracting many a scientist ,such as a school keeps pace with the traditions the beneficent prophet advocates in guiding people to the right paths and science emitting light from Imam Al-Sadiq school people make use of in the here and hereafter fields .For the necessity urges the imam to broach his educational and scientific project. The actual paper tackles the distinguished traits for such a school in terms of analytic-descriptive methodology.

Reality of Arabic Language in the Arab Educational States Between Problem and Remedy Palestine as a Nonpareil

Proff. Dr. Sadiq A. Abo Suleiman

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 81-148

The current paper observes the most salient hindrances in the Arab states, the recent case of the educational Palestinian state comes in the welter of the occupational organ and the language of education on the land of the national authority, then the paper concludes with a set of suggestions and recommendations. In the paper, has it certified that it is important to work in tandem for the cooperative Arab effort to meet the dreams of the millions; though many call for such a hope in certain meetings or symposiums held at the terrain of organizations or Arab directorates. It is for the scientists of Arabic, a class of the great Arab community comes altogether in different occasions never void of decisions, recommendations, suggestions, thoughts or obloquy that do nothing but serve the formal Arabic language. Such places take the sense of someone reminiscing the glory of the language whose brave people create, elevate and promulgate it. However it is to regret being in the state of the dereliction to do what the ancestors did. It is to usher the factors that fail what it should be done for the sake of the formal Arabic language to keep it intact.

Impact of Theology on the Arabic Syntax (Levels and Products)

Asst. Poff. Dr. Salam M. Khilkhal

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 151-168

The present paper manipulates an important epistemic case pertinent to a phenomenon of interaction between theology and syntax: the impact of theology on syntax. The problem runs into an inquiry: Does Arabic syntax consult sheer language or the target language? That is to say; when syntax scrutinizes a language from which a grammatical rule could be inferred; does it scrutinize such a rule in an abstract way or a theological one?

Glances at the Unified Dictionary of Linguistic Terms for the Arabization Coordination Bureau in Rabat

Asst. Pof. Dr. Zuheir AL-Deen Rahmani

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 171-192

Researchers pay much attention to the specified dictionaries , glean the terms of each science in isolation and illustrate them in certain dictionaries. As these terms are of essentiality and keys to sciences, they exert themselves in arranging them objectively and alphabetically and elaborate whatsoever needs explanation. Such dictionaries manifest the opinion of the scientists and researchers due to their denominations and schools. Thus the present paper, Glances at the Unified Dictionary of Linguistic Terms for the Arabization Coordination Bureau in Rabat, comes into light to usher the merit and demerit of such a dictionary.

Approaches of Theoretical Myth Study in the Field of Cultural Anthropology

Lecturer Dr. yas K. Abbas

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 195-218

The research study tends to introduce the concept of the myth from the view of cultural anthropology as an issue long discussed by anthropologists through two centuries (nineteenth and twentieth century) .It is still an important topic for discussion, and then describes the most important trends in this field of knowledge of the myth and the mythical ideas with ritual acts that have long been a subject of discussion for the scientists of anthropology on the level of American or British or French anthropology; like Professor Robert Smith, France Boas, B. Malinowski, Edmund Leach and Levi-Strauss.

Concept of Reticence in Arabic and Its Impact on Parsing and Content

Lecturer Dr. Ali S. AL-Kheigani

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 221-242

The nature of the syntax, what it is and its significance depend on the phonetic phenomena constituting musical tinges concerned with the context. Such phenomena called acoustic pauses .Reticence is one of these pauses contributing accuracy to phonetic performance and recitation in accordance with the circumstances. For the importance of reticence in the two poles of linguistic communication: structure and content, as they are one complete unit, it is to survey such a term in light of the linguistic use . The current study runs into different sections, the first is to define the term linguistically and etymologically, then the reticence and pause, the partial, pause and rest, reticence and parsing, letters substitution for reticence, reticence place, reticence and content, semantic intension in reticence. Such phonetic phenomena are too entangled to differentiate between them; pause, reticence, the disjoined and rest all refer to interrupt a speech though different in synchronizing. Pause is what is best to resume and stretch to what precedes it and it is no need to what comes next. What attracts the heed is that Arabic language grants us specific devices in writing that take place of such phonetic phenomena and perform their functions, particularly, in the Glorious Quran script.

Inter-religious term in Arabic and Akkadian language study

Lecturer Fadhila S. N. AL-Khuzaei

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 245-280

Unifying the discourse, comparing its connotations and certifying the impact of the Islamic and religious heritage on the discourse production, I do launch into tackling such a research paper as exploiting the dialogue of the civilizations Iraqi old Acadian Babylonian and Assyrian and tracing the discourse in terms of phonology and syntax. It is to set an act of comparison between certain religious utterances and Acadian dictionaries; for instance, the universal Assyrian Chicago Dictionary, issued by Chicago university (A.H.W), the German Phonezudan Dictionary (C.A.D), Arabic dictionaries, The Arabic Tongue for Ibn Mandhur and Language Measures for Ibn Faras. It is to reach discourse perception participating to erect a mutual scientific language as to be compared with another island one. Comparing languages with each other gives many a merit; knowing the history, civilization, religion and linguistic regulations induction of nations we never fathom if the study is delimited to the Arabic language. Having reconnoitered the main locus in the studied sources and the utterance categorization according to their mutual structural semantic groups between the Arabic and the Assyrian alphabetically , the research paper forays into two chapters ; the first holds four axes ; the position and etymology in the mutual languages; the religion of old Iraqis ; mutual linguistic study and the Assyrian dialects . The second chapter is allotted to the semantic groups and appears with two axes; the divine utterances and the worshipping utterances. The study terminates at a conclusion with private and public results and bibliography.

Place Nexuses Analysis for Planting and Producing Palm Tree Dates in Wasit Province

Lecturer Ayad A. AL-Shammari

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 283-324

Agriculture takes so great a role in securing the food and its security, attracting the labours, decreasing the rate of unemployment, maintaining the soil and rehabilitating the countryside. Thus it is to pay much attention to it as an important economical source. The present study is to throw light on the reality of the palm trees planting and producing according to quantity, quality, geographical distribution and factors that influence such a source . The research shows that Iraq had (10327231), according to 2007, yet province of Wasit had (565 349) Palm to be ranked seventh among the ten provinces of Iraq. The total production of dates for the same year in all its varieties reaches (430.9) thousand tons to be ranked seventh out of (30.7) thousand tons of the country. The productivity average of Palm in Iraq is 57 kg in 2005 and the highest productivity average achieved in the governorates of Iraq is 80 kg in the province of Wasit. In time, the total number of palm trees in the province in 2010 was )1,150,407( Palm. It was noted that the difference of the impact of the natural, human and living factors from one place to another was the most important factors helped vary the numbers, planting and production of the palmtrees in the province. Certain factors emerge to wreak havoc on the palmtree productivity; lack of government support in certain times, the spread of pests and diseases affecting the palm trees, difficulties of taking care of them and their costly requirements.

Augment of Reserarch States Anthropolgical Study in the Baghdad Province

Asst. Lecturer Heidar Ali Hussein; Asst. Lecturer Huda K. Mutlaq

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 327-355

This study aims at the advancement of research institutions in Iraq as well as recognizing the reality of the research centers as one of the most fundamental pillars for the production of human development. The study also sheds light on the reality of research institutions in Iraq and determines the most important associated indicators, as it tends to be important in studying the development and supporting the scientific research that contributes development to the skills of researchers. As it is to augment the wheel of development and the plans for the future of the country. It is the goal of the study to envisage a future vision seeking access to find research centers as scientific and authenticated and certify the rapport of communication doing all good to the culture of the community, as well as providing sufficient expertise and advice to institutions state and private sector institutions.

History and Modernity A Study of Intertextuality in Eliot’s (The Waste Land)

Lecturer. Ayad Abdul Razzaq Abood

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 45-61

Abstract The present study explores how cultural references inspire T. S. Eliot in the writing of his poem ‘The Waste Land.’ In this study, the major purpose for conducting the intertextual analysis is to examine how Eliot draws on other sources for the writing of his poem. That is, the analysis aims to explore how the writer includes other sources in his poem, what types of sources he uses, what he uses these sources for, and how he positions himself in relation to other sources to make his own statements.

Discourse Ethics in the Tradition of Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq An Analysis and a Translation into English

Asst. Prof. Dr. Maha Tahir Eesa

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 17-42

Abstract Discourse ethics was first introduced by the German philosopher and sociologist Jürgen Habermas' )1929( as addressing theorists rather than practitioners .His theory of communicative action led him to develop a discourse ethics for argument )1984,1987,1990 and 1996(. This theory is based on the fact that as humans we are able to coordinate our actions jointly through language and communication which make us able to understand each other and construct agreement. The rational discussion and debate in communication seeking the force of the better argument may convey to agreement and not other factors that control discourse as power, rank or the dogma of tradition or religion. In making utterances (or debates) speakers implicitly make validity claims of Truth, Rightness and Sincerity (1990) that the better argument wins at the end of this ideal speech situation; in which participants equally have the opportunity to express their position and be heard. To persuade ,one should present a convincing argument, yet, one is free to say yes or no to the validity claims presented and respect the rights of others to do the same. It is an argumentation that is based on moral universalization .This marker (of universalization) indicates what is ethically valid; (i.e,)validity claims are justified and tested against the principle of universalization to reach a mutually satisfying agreement since reason is universal. Habermas delineates a formal ethical approach for argumentation between pluralistic societies that differ in values and have no single moral authority, yet, they can resolve conflict and reach rational consensus because there is a foundation of morality in the pragmatic presuppositions of the discourse itself.He relies on pragmatics of language that mediates human actions through the process of communication; a sort of communicative rationality to actions that are oriented towards reaching mutual understanding or mutual agreement by means of shared interpretations of the world achieved .Habermas theory of Discourse Ethics is taken in this study as a model to analyze a debate from the tradition of Imam JafarAs-Sadiq (A.S ), as his tradition is rich in this aspect. This debate is with an atheist )Abu Shakir As….( which is translated faithfully into English By K.A. Mirza )2012(. This shows the force of the Imam's argument and the extent to which he presents influential reasoning and communicative rationality to win over by depending on validity claims that are considered by him and his interlocutor.