Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 19-62
The present research paper takes hold of certain Quranic issues
that we mentioned in the sayings and speeches of Imam Al-Ridha
(Peace be upon him) explicating many a blessed Quranic text and
contemplating some of them. Some Quranic texts cast controversy
into the Islamic mind for having theories concerned with oneness and
prophetic protection that we mentioned in multifarious viewpoints
irrelevant to the genuine Mohammedan ideology.
Thus far, the speeches of Imam in this regard, come as arbitrary
in proving oneness of Allah and averting atheism or considering
Him as one of trinity [the three]. Besides, the Imam rectifies some
beliefs; about prophets and disbelief in their protection certain
denominations adhered. Consequently, Imam speeches surge into
prominence to keep Islam intact and the doctrines from the acts
of twisting as his descendents did (Peace be upon them). Some
speeches are taken to be the cornerstone of the current research
1. His stance in the cut, separate, letters in the Glorious Quran, and
in Al-Muhakim and Al-Mutashabah science.
2. His stance in averting Quranic interpretation under the domain
of opinion: as he declares in "In the Glorious Quran"
3. His defense about the prophetic protection (Peace be upon
them) and his rectification to the Islamic mind in this concern.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 63-97
Al-Radhawania reading surges into light as evidence of the divine
mercy for man to prove the sheer justice. As for the actual paper
is to throw prominence on the act of "Choosing" and whose nexus
with Alal [the prophet progeny] (Peace be upon them) since they are
regarded as the most evident and unique for the objective observer
and utter fact-chaser. It is notable for all the Islamic theologians,
interpreters, or biographers or Sahah [rectifier] deal with widespread
and attractive tales and give strenuous efforts to such tales. But the
point of controversy that sometimes runs high and sometimes low is
how to stratify such tales and the niche of them in the heart of the
doctrines to some. Trusting and depending on them are considered
as a divine will; as for Allah decree the angels to show obedience to
Adam (Peace be upon him), in time such tales take little shrift for
some, that is why they drag them into shade and obliterate their
references, nexus to the life of Muslims and impact on organizing the
relationship of creatures.
It is an endeavour to choose the most referential tales in every
field, steering the prow of attention on all the tales deviates the point
from its target; certain references are considered as a fount emitting
crucial issue and reflecting unequivocal viewpoint about the sheer
Islam. We do ask Allah for shepherding us to what He decree and
consent in the orbit of His obeisance and will. Thanks to Him at all
Explicatory Tales for Imam Al-Ridha (Peace be upon him) Prophecy and Prophetic Protection As a Paranail
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 99-170
The present study tackles the explicatory tales for Imam Al-Ridha as a source to fathom the impact of the Imam (Peace be upon him) on prophecy and the difference between the prophet and messenger; the first condition of being a prophet is protection, the various types of the divine inspirations. Consequently, he depends mainly upon the explicatory influential methodology in analyzing and manifesting the protection of prophets and messengers ( Peace be upon them ) and takes guidance in the Glorious Iyats ,well-reputed speeches for Ahlalbayt (Peace be upon them) and the opinions of the Islamic theologians the researcher sometimes consents and other times criticizes : some viewpoints are attributed to Ahlalbayt (Peace be upon them) and do not come equal to their sacred niche, in time, they are profs and guardians of the Creator. Moreover, the researcher has chosen nine explicatory models, in timer, all the tales documented according to the documentary or Matin approach; the researcher has translated certain Western utterances. The study terminates in the results, indexes and bibliography. May we ask Allah for success and guidance.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 171-192
Poetry, as defined, is a humanistic stance stimulating the passion of a poet into life and existence and comes into light in the cultural Arabic life since early stages. Such is incarnated with reality and works in tandem with its criticism and perfect systems; the entity of man is described as a value and personality in creation and ethics domain that are preponderant in his influence and obeisance.
Some of such poetry takes hold of both the personality of Imam Ali Ibin Al-Ridha (Peace be upon him) and portrays him as marvelous in the light of sheer human perfection and the features of the good man the divine texts target, and keeps pace with his life, permeates through the hidden items and complicated stimulus in the political life the Imam indulges himself in; all these lead to his poisoned quietus. Such a research paper is an endeavour to draw a line of importance to salient candid stances the Imam takes in his life, in particular, the relationship with Al-Mammon, Al-`Ahid region and the case of his mysterious death. The meant study takes such a viewpoint in terms of three pivots:
1-Having the portrait of the hero: the poetic image that is a point of poetry convergence incarnating the image of Al-Ridha (peace be upon him) as a man and Imam.
2- having the brace of vice and virtue; there is a comparison the poets set between Al-Ridha (Peace be upon him) and Abbasid Caliphates, specifically, Al-Mammon.
3-Having the image of martyrdom poetically: such a state sheds light on the death of the Imam and what mysteries and ambiguities it casts.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 193-222
The nexus between the educated and the political authority is of importance at all the changes the Iraqi society endures, since it is a crucial conjecture in the relationship between culture and politics. In time such a relation manifests the reality between the cultural institutes, judiciary and authoritative institutes.
The paper focuses upon the nexuses and severance of relation the former political rule shows and intends to dominate all the institutes, including the cultural ones, regardless of the volition the educated men hold in a coercive ideologized policy the ruling regime maintains; such an ideologized policy comes into surface through spewing the Ba`athist ideology into all the walks of life.
The university man was one of its means; many surge into being lenient machine to reerect the cultural Iraqi memory. As a result, the paper comes to tackle such a miserable phase, in the cultural Iraqi phases, the researcher depends mainly upon all the nexuses and intersections between the academic educated man; university teachers, and the political authority in the past.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 223-242
The research paper endeavours to answer the question: Does the literary text have speeches concerned with prosody and other speeches with narratology? So it is to trace the definition of poetry, intonation, rhyme, imagination, the opinions and the various notes of the old Arab poetry critics. The Arab domain of criticism has prolific viewpoints of scientific touches. The present paper takes seizure of the efforts of the contemporary in such a trend. The paper concludes that the literary text is a unique world and averts being divided and there is no evidence certifying such a division or leading it into legitimacy; "it is not for the distant evaluation between prose and poetry convenient in light of a precise philosophical viewpoint". It is only for sheer textual necessities, it means the lesson and classification, the more a text appears as two words, the more it comes to merge, then its function becomes of two targets, once one endeavours to separate them, a text tends not to be called as so.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 243-266
The present research paper endeavours to trace the term semiotics in the light of philology and integrates the opinions that buttress the foreign root of the term and describe it as Christian and so forth. But after delving into the old Arabic dictionaries and the adjacent texts of the Arabics, we do find that such a term is very common as many Arabic concepts in terms of structure; for instance, Alkami, Alheimia, in time, it is found in the Western science of semantics, so the study proves that Al-Seimia is an Arabic concept in terms of structure, yet in terms of content it has a knowledge reference that is not far from the desire of the innovators.
Most of the Arabic sources, authenticated linguistic dictionaries, explicatory references, old poetic tests and Quranic Iyats certify that semantics is a genuine Arabic utterance and never being driven , it comes from one linguistic root; Wasma from the stem Wasam, then place inversion occurs to be Suma, then the letter waw turns to be ya equal to the diacritic before it and gets merged, so it becomes Sweima, that is why the linguistic sources and books of explication and Hadeeth reach consensus about. Yet the reference we do find in the utterance is almost much the same; sign.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 267-304
The research deals with the historical processes for drawing up the elementary designs and plans of Karbala City since its establishment until present. The city also passed through many architectural reformations to control its development and growth processes. The Ottoman ruler, Madhit Pasha's reforms were considered the most important designs to the city in the eighteenth century. Since such plans paved the way for new future growth that the city witnessed throughout its long architectural history. It also transferred the city from its old civilian construction to modern planning. Concerning the modern history, the Germanic Doxidas Association puts a new design for the city in the late fifties of the last century. Such designs took all the city changes and its planning, spatial and population elements followed by a number of planning modification that were applied to the city centre as well as limiting the future growth fields into consideration.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 305-350
The present study tackles the employing techniques in the structure of the ceramic shape in three chapters; the first deals with the problem and some inquiries: Are there targets in employing the ceramic shape? Does the diversity of the ceramic shapes belong to the techniques used by an artist? The scope of the study covers the period 2001-2012 for certain Iraqi artists; Sa`ad Shakir, Qasim Naeef and Ra`ad Al-Dalaymi. Besides, the aim of the study is to survey the ceramic structure, to fathom the role of the achieved techniques in the ceramic shape and to define the research concepts; shape enriching, shape and technique.
In the second chapter, the theoretical side comes to the fore in three sections to describe such techniques more fully; the first section is entitled "Constructional Concept in the Ceramic Art", the second manipulates "Aestheticism and Technique of the Ceramic Shape" reconnoitering the ways of constructing the ceramic shape technically and aesthetically. The third section is entitled as "Features of the Contemporary Iraqi Ceramics" for having references civilized, Islamic, urban and contemporary and it concludes with some theoretical signs.
In time, the third chapter takes lead of the procedures that represent the addressees and the sample of the research paper; the sample consists of five models for Iraqi ceramic artists, selected intentionally to have the aim of the study achieved.
The fourth chapter takes hold of the paramount results: the structure of the Iraqi ceramic shape keeps pace with forming features of modernity and its techniques characterized with aestheticism and alluding to heritage; the past.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 251-418
The psychological trends have academic research importance as much as they have applied one in studying the propensity as an essential variable in interpreting the behaviour of an individual; the trends of the individual are much related to their needs than to the objective features of the trend.
In so saying, the researcher aims to focus upon the trends of the students in the college for art education in Karbala and to know the difference in sex in light of the trend and the difference according to the education level through measuring their responses to certain twenty six items given to 240 students covering all the study stages. The results manifest that their trends toward art education is universally negative; there are certain statistical differences in their trends toward other study stages depending on the average and standard deviation. The first and fourth stages are set in comparison; it seems that the first stage is the least negative one in its trend toward art education, whereas the fourth stage runs into the highest negative point in its trend toward art education. The sex results show that there is no significant difference and there is an average difference for girl students in their trend toward art education. But such differences are not of significance, in the light of such result. The researcher recommends that it is necessary to exploit the tool of measuring the trend in other studies and research fields.
Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 15-38
Banter is offensive on the surface, but at a deeper level it intends to maintain comity, that is to say, banter refers to employing a literally impolite utterance to convey a truly polite goal. As an important means in human communication, banter is often used to facilitate human relationships, relieve tense atmosphere, reinforce in-group solidarity.
The current study attempts to explore banter from a pragmatic perspective. It discusses the politeness aspect of banter through highlighting the relation between politeness, impoliteness and banter, and the comparison between banter and irony, real impoliteness and virtual impoliteness.
It also deals with the banter effect which may be positive or negative and the response to banter which may include showing an amused expression, responding with another banter utterance. For the sake of the analysis, certain extracts are taken from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.