Sequencing Impossibility of two Vocalizations (Linguistic and Phonetic Reading)

Adil Natheer Bari Al-Hassani

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 19-66

The present study traces the state of impossibility of two
vocalizations in the Arabic scriptures as considered to be an obstacle
to the influence of some phonetic rules, in particular, vocalization
rules; that it is to have more than one vocalization regarded as one
of the obstacle of vocalization. The Study focuses upon the following
isles: sequencing impossibility in the ancient linguistic scripturedelving
into history and the acts of tracing-then three reasons float
into being to prevent sequencing, darkness, misconstruction and
compulsion. In the second isle we do tackle the possibility of having
more than one vocalization and turn them to the modern linguistic
lesson,. Then we conclude that the possibility of having more than
one vocalization is applicable as there is no sense of an obstacle
Sibawaihi mentions, some or all; darkness, misconstruction and
compulsion.

Jeem the Compound Sound in Arabics

Jassim Khalaf Marce

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 67-90

The current paper comes under the descriptive studies and
considered as evaluative . In this regard, there are three salient points:
first, articulation of Jeem for the classicists and the modernists,
second, the idea of the compound sound, third, other shades of the
Jeem sound in Arabics.

Principle of Diacritical Vicinity and its Impact on Changing the Features of the Voiced

Mushtaq; Abbass Ma

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 91-125

Our tongue legacy, in particular, the phonetic one, strikes the
eye as steeped in many a theory and sayings the modernist lesson
advocates. One of these sayings is the principle of diacritical vicinity
that could be defined as linguistic procedural principle changing the
features of the voiced in Arabics according to its state, position in
the context and the impact of this on the articulating construction.
The etymologists, much concerned with such a fact than other
ancient Arab scientists, have certified such a principle stemming
from two essentials:
1. The articulating features of the sound.
2. The short voiced sound adjacent to it- separated by a hyphen
or not- Such two facts incarnate the cognizance of our ancient
etymologists of what the modernist scholars call for. The
features of a sound and what is adjacent to it in the context
are crucial to keep the sound intact or not, also they affect the
sound articulation and its features.

Phonetic behavior of Arabic accents and morphological structure

Hassin Abidalghani Al-Asadi

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 127-153

The Arabic dialects influence the linguistic lesson. Not only
do the scientists pay heed to the native language, but they
exert themselves to trail the Arabic dialects and to endeavour
to elucidate their ramifications; in particular the morphological
structure in Arabic. In the present paper, we do drag the impact
of such dialects on the morphological structure into the ground,
as they revert into specific phonetic choices in certain positions
monitored in the following contexts :
1- Teem dialect ramification.
2- Hamza mitigating.
3- Phonetic behaviour for dialects and pausing

Aesthetic Values of Geometrical Shapes in the Quranic Manuscripts

Shawqi Mustafa Al-Moosawi

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 155-228

A paper submitted
to the Scientific Promotion Committee
in Babylon University in partial fulfillment
of the Requirements for Professorship Rank
The present study tackles Aesthetic Values of Geometrical
Shapes in the Quranic Manuscripts in the orbit of the Quranic
manuscripts purporting the beauties of the Islamic decoration
considered as the constituents of the decoration construction. In
time, the Islamic artworks give much shrifts to abstractism in having
visual scenes for certain vicinities, geographical and vegetable,
taking a decorative harmonized system steeped in raving beauty.
So the art of manuscript surges into being under the umbrella of
its decoration and attaches importance to presuming decorative
values reckoning on the systems of ornamental construction.
The current paper consists of four chapters; the first takes hold
of the problem and the need of it, the aesthetic discourse in the
Quranic manuscripts surveying the construction of decoration in
general and the geometry in the Islamic manuscripts in Iraq , in
particular ; the aim of the study defining the aesthetic values for
the geometrical shapes in the Quranic manuscripts in Iraq in light
of abstractism in the art of manuscript decorating and explication
of samples for geometrical decorations of unpunished Quranic
manuscripts as of 1110 Hegira to 1226 Hegira counting upon the
method of the content explicating in the orbit of aesthetic view
theoretically and procedurally. The second chapter manipulates
the theoretical side and bifurcated intro three sections; the first
deals with the beauties of decorative shapes in intellectuality and
philosophy giving visions to the importance of aestheticism in intellectuality, arts and philosophy from civilization to civilization;
the second section covers the systems of the decorative shape
and the essentials of construction paving the way to knowledge in
the orbit of the decorative discourse in the Islamic arts technically,
performatively and referentially ; the third section grasps the
geometrical trend in the decoration of the manuscript.
Third chapter purports the procedures, samples, strategy and the
analysis of the samples that are five Quranic manuscripts from the
Abbasid age . The fourth chapter reviews the results; the Muslim
decorator suggests the principle of diffusion to the decorative
constituents, vegetable and geometrical, due to the processes of
simplification and construction the decorator uses in his products,
that is why his decorative artworks gain model aesthetic values
coming equal to the images of the originality . Furthermore, there
are inference, recommendations and suggestions; the researcher
recommends to put in force a further study ; the Symbol and its
Patterns in the Quranic Manuscripts.

Jacobins and their political activity in France (1789 - 1799)

Talib M. Hasan Al-Waily

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 229-278

Jacobins is an extremist political society known by its terrorist
activity during the French Revolution 1789 started from the
monastery of the Christian Jacobite in Brittany. It used every
possible means to dominate the French political arena through
its branches across the country. Thus they converted from the
religious beginning to the attempt of dealing with the competitive
trends، in away which secures its absolute domination on poles of
the monarchy and affiliated on them، or deputies of the National
Assembly of various backgrounds. When they had realized that
their interests require another trend، they felt no hesitation to
adopt the views and support of the Socialist thinker (Babuf). The
also showed readiness for murders and bloody coups using the
slogans of the Revolution in getting rid of their rivals. It has been
found that there had been a close relationship between them
and the Masons. They were able to direct and guide the actives
of the National Assembly due to their prominent figures (Danton،
Mara، Robespierre) despite the fact that they had no parliamentary
seats which secure their being the Majority. They implemented
many coups in order to dominate the scene. However، the Murder
Robespierre was an indicator for the decline of the Assembly، even
though it did not remove that influence which fading and appearing
in accordance with circumstances and challenges. Finally The
government managed to Crush all opposition forces. They appeal
for Napoleon Bonaparte in suppressing the movement. Bourgeois
hegemony was restored with the coming of Bonaparte starting with
the coup of 18 Premiere (29 November 1799)، which ended the
society of the Jacobins and most of the principles of the revolution
alike.

Lexical Trench Mark and its Impact on Guiding Content (Ocean-Sea Explication as a Model)

Ahamed Khudheir; Ali; Abass Al

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 279-319

The three language systems i.e. Phonetics, grammar and syntax
produce many contexts help in understanding and determine
meaning. This study states that lexicon has its own system where
the content of the meant system has many relations ; a given word,
in the mind of the lexicographer or the native speaker, is linked to a
semantic field and a set of relations as well…and this is the basis on
which the lexical fields ,semantic fields, are based.
This lexical system determines the context of lexical meaning,
lexical context; Lexical meaning doesn’t mean that it is irrelative
to the relations it has with other linguistic vocabulary. Such a
deep-rooted denotation, in the mind of the native speaker
,should be used for founding the written text and coining speech
and in text analysis as well so that the lexical meaning will be the
context required in this regard. This runs counter to what may be
understood that such a context is an extra one in that it is rather
using the lexical meaning outside the context and its connections
just to understand the text in a given context .
This type of context has a great effect in determining the
accordance and semantic harmony among sentence constituents in
the context. This can be seen clearly in states of lexical collocations
which represent the lexical aspect of grammatical collocations.
This study is of many parts to indicate the effect of the
mentioned context ; the parsing might depend on lexical meaning,
i.e. however you direct the meaning, parsing is directed as well.
The grammatical rule is linked to the lexical meaning whose
validity reckons upon it , if conditioned to have a specific meaning.
In addition, a lexical meaning might lead to a functional one ;
grammatical or syntactic.
It might happen that a lexical cohesion is found among the
vocabulary of a text which leads to clarification and understanding
of meaning by a receptor, or there might be a lexical paradox
among those vocabularies. Such a paradox is divided into two
types: a close paradox where the two words have an symmetrical
relation as that of metaphor which leads to a state of interpretation
or explanation. The second one is the distant paradox where there
is no a relation or link among the words in paradox that leads to
deletion of meaning or turning the text into mere nonsense. The
latter type is excluded from the study since its application leads to
the explanation of the Glorious Quran.
Inclusion adds a lexical meaning to words since it expands
the lexical denotation of a word and it has a rhetorical précis
as acknowledged by Abu Hayyan. It also has a strong link with
paradox for it represents one of the ways used as an escape
in interpretation. This may be due to structural paradox which
means structure in surface that is incorrect or different from the
grammatical rule , then we need to interpret it.

The influnce of time relationships among the events of which to clearfy the indication of isolation in the Holly Quran

Turath Hakim Malik AL-Zaiadi; Mohammad Kareem Jabbar

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 321-359

Different realationship in alang urge tissus contact different
events, and they can be collected according to atime balance in
three relations, for if the expectations of their times fallings result
to collect them by intermingle , commentary and sag . The Holly
Quran phrase appears or shows that this relations take place in
its indication which are to be coupled with comrades , speed , the
connection with commentary and with meaning fullness dimension
in sag . Besides their participation in amain indication with
subsieliary indications and that are the results of main indication
Harmony with the context indications.
The thing that draws attention is that the isolation indication
was the most distinguished among all the indications , the
subsidiary with the three relations .
The isolation falls on the second event , and the context shows
that the second event considers away with foundation of the other
event either that event preceds the isolated or falling with it , that′s
to mean the isolated event came after the first event or it may
come with it .

Sibawaihi First and First Encourages Grammarians not to Reckon upon Speeches of the Honourable Prophet, Hadith Sharif

adoon Ahmed Ali

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 361-387

It is no secret the book Sibawayhi has a prominent status among
Arab briliant books. He has deposited the bulk of the findings of the
Arabic knowledge derived from senior grammarians of his time. He
was first when he came to Basrah under Hammad ibn Salamah (d.
167 AH), but failed to collect the Hadith because he was non-native
speaker of Arabic. Thus, he began studying Arabic in the circle of
Khalil bin Ahmed Faraheedi (d. 175 AH) until he excelled in it, He
took the same approach to restrict the provisions of the language
and adjust the manifestations of what came in the Holy Quran and
Arabic Eloquent poetry. His 'book' which was later named (Quran's
Grammar(Nahu)); however Sibawayhi have protest Hadith Sharif
except in places limited where some of the conversations in support
of the rule of Grammar, or intensifying support, and this approach
Sibawayhi was first who encouraged Grammarians for not relying on
the Hadith Sharif. Have walked in Arab scientists passengers until the
seventh century who followed his path in the book authoring. The
study concluded among other things which justify the reason behind
the reluctance of Sibawayhi statement by the hadith of the Prophet,
may Allah bless him and his family, including:
1. The early departure of Sibawayhi from the circle of (Hammad
ibn Salamah) because of his Arabic phonological mistakes
deprived him from many linguistic and grammatical issues.
2. Consequently his failure to collect Hadith made him
unconfident to capture the real meanings of the words of
the prophet. That's why we find him attributes Hadith to the
man who said of the Arabs, or many Arabs.
3. Sibawayhi character inter alia made him feel inferior or that
no one else, including his errors, and aphasia in the tongue
referred to by al-Alimi, the incident of him being expelled
from the circle, have had a direct impact on him to make
the effort and excellence in the collection of science Arab
and dexterity-in authoring, which is confirmed by scientists
psychoanalysis that if a person failed to prove itself and gain
social influence, it uses different means of compensation
may lead to excellence and doing great work.

The Use of the Supernatural in Henry James's Short Fiction

Ameer Abd Hadi; Salih Mahdi Hameed

AL-AMEED JOURNAL, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-44

The supernatural is a term which refers to anything that is not
applicable to the natural law. It includes everything that is paranormal
or metaphysical.
Henry James wrote a considerable number of narrative pieces
in which the presence of the supernatural is evident; this was commenced
with ‘‘The Romance of Certain Old Clothes1868( ‘‘) and
ended with his unfinished novel The Sense of the Past (1914). The
prolific production of such works fell during and after the period that
coincided with his attempt to write for the theatre in the early 1890s.
This research is devoted to the critical investigation of James’s
exploration of the supernatural in his two stories;”Owen Wingrave”
(1893), and “The Friends of the Friends”(1896). The selection these
two stories is based on the fact that they are written in a period
which represents, for the novelist, his artistic maturity with which he
had an intellectual unrest whether or not to stop fictional writings
and begin with theatrical writings.
The study is divided into two sections, each section deals with
a text.
Finally, the study ends with the conclusion which sums up all the
findings of the study.